Sarva Mangala Praveena, (2008) A study on heavy metals distribution in mangrove sediment of Mengkabong, Sabah. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
The distribution of selected heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and AI), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity, organic matter, particle size and base cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) in surface sediment of a mangrove forest situated on the northwest of Sabah were examined from March 2006 to November 2006 at high and low tides. The heavy metal levels, expressed as mg/kg in the studies area were scattered in the ranges: 1434-18360 for iron, 2-49 for copper, 12-93 for zinc, 13-69 for lead and 2410-35393 for aluminium. The Two-Way ANOVA results indicated that the underlying Significant variations exist between stations at high and low tides. Results of Spearman correlation coefficient showed a large variety and complexity in these relationships at high and low tides. Multivariate statistics approach (factor analysis) was used to discover and interpret relationships between variables. At high tide, six factors were obtained, which accounted for nearly 70% of the total variance. The results of factor analysis groups at high tide contain salinity, electrical conductivity and clay in factor one, sand in factor two, Cu and K in factor three, Fe, Ca and AI in factor four, pH and Na in factor five as well as Pb in factor six. Whereas at low tide, seven factors were extracted and demonstrated the 77% of the total variance. The results of factor analysis groups at low tide contain silt, AI and Zn in factor one, Mg, ca and Pb in factor two, Cu and clay in factor three, salinity and K in factor four, pH in factor five, Fe in factor six and Na in factor seven. Different types of indexes (enrichment factors (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), pollution load index (PU) and metal sediment pollution index, MSPI) were tested and compared to assess the contamination level. Based on these Indexes, MSPI was chosen as having an advantage over the earlier indexes. MSPI uses PCA to interpret and calculated the pollution scores derived from the PCA results. The MSPI value indicates that the Mengkabong mangrove sediment is in excellent condition and confirms that it is in low contamination condition. Moreover, the mean of heavy metals were compared to several sediment quality guidelines (Washington Department of Environment, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC), Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table (SQUIRT), Portuguese legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong) in order to evaluate the degree to which the sediment-associated chemical status might adversely affect the aquatic organisms. The interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong were chosen and being the most appropriate guideline that meet the prioritization criteria consistent with international regulations and initiatives. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of existing benthic community structure (crabs, mollusks, mudskippers) related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong mangrove forest management.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||mangrove surface sediment, statistical results, indexes, sediment quality guidelines|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering|
|Divisions:||SCHOOL > School of Science and Technology|
|Deposited By:||IR Admin|
|Deposited On:||12 Dec 2014 14:40|
|Last Modified:||12 Dec 2014 14:40|
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