GCMS - based metabolomics for biomarker discovery of clinacanthus nutans and its tissue culture

Ho, Sie Yee (2016) GCMS - based metabolomics for biomarker discovery of clinacanthus nutans and its tissue culture. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

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Abstract

Plant metabolomics is a data-driven approach that plays an important role in systems biology in identifying and describing chemical matrices of plant cells that correlate to biochemical phenotypes. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful and robust analytical tool widely applied in separating and identifying phytochemical constituents of plant metabolites nowadays. Clinacanthus nutans is a medicinal plant currently of public interest due to its use in treating various chronic diseases such as herpes and cancer. The present study aimed to analyse and compare the metabolic profiles of Clinacanthus nutans of different ages using GC-MS approach. As a result, seven compounds with medicinal interest were found to accumulate in all of the four different ages of C. nutans plants (one-three-year old purchased plant, re-cultivated three-, six- and twelve-month old plant). These seven biomarker compounds for Clinacanthus nutans were squalene, Vitamin E, stigmasterol, campesterol, Sitosterol, lupeol and betulin. Of these plants, the six-month old re-cultivated plant was found to accumulate the highest amount of the compounds, hence the profile of the plant was chosen for further comparison with the tissue cultures induced from Clinacanthus nutans. In total, eleven secondary metabolites were detected in the leaves, stems, and roots of purchased, re-cultivated and, regenerated plants as well as in the adventitious roots and calluses of Clinacanthus nutans. The metabolites were phytol, squalene, didecan-2-yl phthalate, Vitamin E, β/y -tocopherol, stigmasterol, campesterol, (β-sitosterol, α/β- amyrin, lupeol, and betulin. The presence of phytol, squalene, didecan-2-yl phthalate, Vitamin E and its derivatives, campesterol, and amyrin were reported for the first time in this species. Highest quantities of squalene, Vitamin E, campesterol, stigmasterol, and (3-sitosterol were accumulated in the regenerated plants, 2.76 ± 0.27, 0.85 ± 0.08, 7.36 ± 0.85, 1.86 ± 0.04, and 11.68 ± 0.91 g/kg (on dry matter basis), respectively. Meanwhile, the six-month old recultivated plant' root possessed the highest amount of lupeol and betulin, corresponding to 498.19 ± 22.50 and 4.44 ± 0.31 g/kg, respectively. In addition, the induced calluses and adventitious roots also showed the accumulation of the above-mentioned metabolites especially lupeol, with 248.03 ± 71.68 and 81.27 ± 1.84 g/kg, respectively. Through analyses of the metabolic profiles, the chemical compounds detected were postulated to have originated via the biosynthetic pathways of phytosterols and triterpenoids. Interestingly, more phytochemical compounds in Clinacanthus nutans were detected in the current work than previously reported and they could potentially be used as marker compounds for the standardisation and development of herbal drugs and nutraceutical products.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans, GC-MS approach, ages
Subjects: Q Science > QK Botany
Divisions: SCHOOL > Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI)
Depositing User: Munira
Date Deposited: 27 Oct 2017 08:11
Last Modified: 27 Oct 2017 08:11
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/12842

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