Chemical composition and cytotoxic properties of Clinacanthus nutans root extracts

Teoh, Peik Lin and Cheng, Angelina Yi Fang and Liau, Monica and Lem, Fui Fui and Grace P. Kaling, and Chua, Fern Nie and Cheong, Bo Eng (2017) Chemical composition and cytotoxic properties of Clinacanthus nutans root extracts. Pharmaceutical Biology, 55 (1). pp. 394-401. ISSN 1388-0209

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Abstract

Context: Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial and antivenom activities. In Malaysia, it has been widely claimed to be effective in various cancer treatments but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: This study investigates the chemical constituents, anti-proliferative, and apoptotic properties of C. nutans root extracts. Materials and methods: The roots were subjected to solvent extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate. The anti-proliferative effects of root extracts were tested at the concentrations of 10 to 50 μg/mL on MCF-7 and HeLa by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for 72 h. Morphological changes were observed under light microscope. Pro-apoptotic effects of root extracts were examined using flow cytometric analysis and RT-PCR. The chemical compositions of root extracts were detected using GC-MS. Results: The proliferation of MCF-7 cells was inhibited with the IC50 values of 35 and 30 μg/mL, respectively, for methanol and ethyl acetate root extracts. The average inhibition of HeLa cells was ∼25%. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 was supported by chromatin condensation, down-regulation of BCL2 and unaltered expression of BAX. However, only ethyl acetate extract caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS analysis revealed the roots extracts were rich with terpenoids and phytosterols. Discussion and conclusions: The results demonstrated that root extracts promote apoptosis by suppressing BCL2 via mitochondria-dependent or independent manner. The identified compounds might work solely or cooperatively in regulating apoptosis. However, further studies are required to address this.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans, anti-proliferative, apoptosis, BAX, BCL2
Subjects: R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: SCHOOL > Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI)
Depositing User: Munira
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2018 00:40
Last Modified: 06 Mar 2018 00:40
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/19080

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