Effects of drought stress and different growth stages on the growth and yield of sweet corn (Zea Mays L.)

Alissa Nabilla Zamri, (2018) Effects of drought stress and different growth stages on the growth and yield of sweet corn (Zea Mays L.). Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Maize had been reported to be sensitive to drought stress and growth stage of crop in which stress occurred influence the severity of drought to the plant. A pot experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture in Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sandakan to investigate the effects of drought stress and different growth stages on the growth and yield of Thai Super Sweet (TSS) cultivar. Drought stress was created through irrigation of controlled volume of water to the growing plants at different growth stages. Three different percentages of soil field capacity (FC) of 25%, 50% and 100% were created through controlled irrigation with different volume of water of 4 L, 2 L and 1 L respectively. The soil FC level was maintained by monitoring the water content {% WC) using Spectrum (Waterscout) soil moisture sensor. Each treatments were applied at different growth stages, namely vegetative (14 - 34 days after sowing (DAS), pre­ flowering (35 - 55 DAS) and flowering ( 48 - 68 DAS} stages to determine the growth stage that was the most susceptible to drought A consistent 20 days period of stress was created for each growing stages. Effects of different levels and timing of drought stress were evaluated based on vegetative growth parameter such as the number of leaves, plant height, stem girth, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, time of flowering, yield components consisting of number of cobs, height of first cob, length of first cob, fresh weight of first cob, number of grains and 100 grains weight. Proline content inside the ear-leaves was also measured as biochemical parameter. All data were collected and analyzed by two-way analysis of variance {ANOVA) using SAS 9.4 followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD). No significant difference (p>0.05) were found on the effect of different levels and timings of drought towards the number of leaves, plant height, stem girth and leaf area of TSS. However, there were significant difference (p<0.05) recorded on the effect of drought and growth stages towards parameters such as the plants' chlorophyll content, and yield components such as cob length, fresh weight of cob, cob girth, number of grains and 100 grains weight. Severe drought level was found to trigger higher chlorophyll contents of the plants under 25% FC (Tl) and 50% FC (T2). Drought induced shorter flowering time of PT1 (25% at pre-flowering) with the earliest record of tasseling at 42 DAS. Plants were also affected by severe drought through delay of tasseling of VT1 (25% FC at vegetative) while FT1 (25% FC at flowering) had delayed silking time and silk elongation and larger tassel to silking interval. For the yield components, TSS were recorded to be unaffected by drought at pre-flowering as it produced higher mean cob length and fresh weight of cob. The yield components of plants induced to Tl and T2 were recorded to be severely affected by the drought stress at respective growth stages. Tl and T2 were also found to induce higher proline content compared to other treatments. Overall, drought during vegetative and flowering stages was identified to be damaging towards the yield of TSS maize, while during pre-flowering drought period, TSS expressed tolerance response through higher expression of chlorophyll and proline content and thus able to perform the best overall yield components.

Item Type: Academic Exercise
Uncontrolled Keywords: Plant , Thai Super Sweet (TSS) , drought stress
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Depositing User: Noraini
Date Deposited: 26 Dec 2019 23:34
Last Modified: 26 Dec 2019 23:34
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/24461

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