Formulation and evaluation of hair shampoo containing tea tree (Melaleuca Alternifolia) and virgin coconut ( Cocos Nucifera) oil

Henzilenah Kinjuit, (2019) Formulation and evaluation of hair shampoo containing tea tree (Melaleuca Alternifolia) and virgin coconut ( Cocos Nucifera) oil. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

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The components of essential oil for Melaleuca a/ternifolia or commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO) are well known for their various beneficial properties. Whereas, the medium chain fatty acids in oil of Virgin Coconut ( Cocos nucifera) oil (VCO) have the ability to protect hair follicles from heat, restoring hair's moisture and other damage. The objective of the current study is to incorporate TTO and VCO into shampoo formulations and systematically evaluate their properties and effects on hair. This thesis describes the physical properties of seven hair shampoo formulations containing differing amount of TTO and VCO. The essential oils applied in these formulations were extracted from fresh tea tree leaves using steam distillation method and the virgin oil was produced from fermentation of fresh mature kernel coconut. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was conducted to determine the essential oil components of TTO and fatty acid composition of VCO. The shampoo formulations were subjected to evaluation of several parameters. The GC-MS results show that the TTO was composed of terpene hydrocarbons with Terpinene-4-ol as the major component. As for the VCO, its major component is auric acid. All formulations were acid balanced with pH range between 6.23 -6.43. Previous study shown that acid balanced shampoos will cause less frizzing for generating less negative static electricity on the hair fiber surface. Total solid contents were between 29.92 -35.61 % with shampoo formulation of 6% TTO 0% VCO showed the best. All formulations showed the same foam volume for 4 minutes observation and no dirt were observed which indicates their stability in foaming and ability of cleansing are excellent. Rheological evaluations were conducted with only shampoo containing 6% TTO 0% VCO showed pseudo plastic behavior which is a desirable attribute in shampoos formulation. It showed high viscosity at low rotational speed and decrease in viscosity at high rotational speed which indicates a favorable property to spread the shampoos on hair. Antimicrobial effectiveness test was carried out to determine the efficacy of shampoo formulation on elimination of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. From the results, shampoo with 6% TTO 0% VCO exhibits the most satisfying result due to the highest percentage reduction of bacterial load which is 95.8%. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that hair samples washed with shampoo containing 6% VCO 0% TTO indicates overlapping scales with no crack and holes indicating well-conditioned and healthy hair. In summary, TTO can be formulated specifically as antimicrobial shampoo focusing in combating severe itchiness and bacterial infection on human hair and scalp. Whereas, VCO is greater in the preparation of hair conditioning and damage treatment shampoo due to its ability in penetrating hair fiber and high affinity for hair proteins.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Essential oil , Melaleuca alternifolia , Virgin Coconut
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: FACULTY > Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition
Depositing User: Noraini
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2020 02:57
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2020 02:57

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