Gibbons aren’t singing in the rain: presence and amount of rainfall influences ape calling behavior in Sabah, Malaysia

Dena J. Clink, and Abdul Hamid Ahmad, and Holger Klinck, (2020) Gibbons aren’t singing in the rain: presence and amount of rainfall influences ape calling behavior in Sabah, Malaysia. Scientific Reports, 10 (1). ISSN 2045-2322

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Abstract

Early morning calling occurs across diverse taxa, which may be related to optimal conditions for sound transmission. There exists substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in calling time which is influenced by intrinsic, social and/or environmental factors. Here, we investigate environmental predictors of calling in gibbons. We hypothesized that male solos— which occur earlier and tend to be longer than duets—would be more influenced by environmental variables, if earlier, longer calling bouts are energetically costly, and therefore limited by overnight energy expenditure. Our top model for male solo events included amount of rain in the previous 24 hours, and explained 30% of the variance, whereas the top model for duet events (which included presence and amount of rainfall) explained only 5% of the variance. Rain the previous night led to a later start time of male solos (~30 minutes), but our top model for duet start time did not include any reliable predictors. Male solo events appear to be more influenced by environmental factors, and duets may be influenced more by social factors. Our results are in line with previous studies that show that changes in overnight conditions —which may alter energy expenditure —can influence early morning calling behavior.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hylobatidae , Primate , Gibbon Nomascus
Subjects: S Agriculture > SD Forestry
Divisions: SCHOOL > Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation
Depositing User: Noraini
Date Deposited: 16 Apr 2020 03:48
Last Modified: 16 Apr 2020 03:48
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/25301

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