# Application of mathematics in EAN 13 and EAN 8 with programming

Shalini Nagaratnam, (2006) Application of mathematics in EAN 13 and EAN 8 with programming. Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Unpublished)

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## Abstract

EAN 8 and EAN 13 are the most common barcodes used in retail products. EAN 8 consists 8 digits while EAN 13 consists 13 digits. The last digit for both is known as the check digit. A check digit serves to verify the order of the preceding digits or the validity of a barcode which is attained through mathematical calculations using mod 10 and weight (I, 3). The understanding of Congruence Modulo n and Modular Arithmetic is required. After validating EAN 8 and BAN 13, using binary digits, the symbol of BAN 13 and EAN 8 is formed. The understanding of probability, permutation, binary and base two system are required to understand the formation of the symbol. To assist the validity check of EAN 8 and EAN 13, a C-language program was encoded. Another C-language program was developed to assist the detection of the possible errors in the barcode string of digits. In conclusion, Mod 1O is the most suitable mod for attaining check digit. However using the weight (1,3) does not allow the detection of a Jump Transposition Error. For further research, analysis on different weight for EAN 13 and EAN 8 can be conducted as well as improving the C-program for Error Detection in EAN 13 and EAN 8.

Item Type: Academic Exercise EAN 3, EAN 13, Barcode, Retail products ?? QA299.6-433 ?? SCHOOL > School of Science and Technology ADMIN ADMIN 09 Jan 2012 08:46 12 Oct 2017 02:43 http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/404