Breakfast composition and cognitive functions in 11 year-old primary school children in SK. Likas, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Nurliyana Abdul Razak, (2009) Breakfast composition and cognitive functions in 11 year-old primary school children in SK. Likas, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

This intervention study examined the effect of consumption of breakfast of different Glycaemic Index (GI) values on cognitive functions, breakfast habits pattern and differences in body size by BMI-for-Age between regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers among 11 year-old primary school children in SK Likas, Kota Kinabalu (n=58; m=23, f=35). Using a randomized cross-over design, students were divided into three groups; two treatment groups, which either received high-GI or low-GI breakfast, and a control group. Four types of cognitive tests were administered: (1) Stroop Effect Test; (2) Sternberg Memory Search Test; (3) Spatial Memory Test; (4) False Memory Test. Breakfast habits were determined using questionnaires. Height and weight were taken when students acted as the control. Consumption of a low-GI breakfast significantly improved memory processes (p=0.002). Scores for the remaining three tests were better following a low-GI breakfast, albeit insignificant (p>0.05). Students from low socio-economic level benefitted more from a low-GI breakfast, and those from middle socio-economic levels benefitted from a high-GI breakfast (p=0.048). Gender and nutritional status did not significantly affect the outcomes of this study. However, the effect of breakfast condition was found to be more pronounced in females. Most of the students take breakfast everyday (62.07%) at home during both school terms (72.41%) and holidays (98.28%) with fried rice (24.07%) and biscuit or kuih (24.07%) being the most common items. There was no significant association between body size by BMI-for-Age and regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers (p=0.103) and both groups were found to have normal body size by BMI for-Age, 65.0% and 76.5% respectively.

Item Type: Academic Exercise
Uncontrolled Keywords: Breakfast composition, Food science, Nutrition food, Breakfast habits, Primary School children, SK Likas, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics > Nutrition. Foods and food supply
Divisions: SCHOOL > School of Food Science and Nutrition
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email storage.bpmlib@ums.edu.my
Date Deposited: 15 May 2012 09:49
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2017 03:58
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/4162

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