Chemical and thermal properties of lignins from oil palm biomass as a substitute for phenol in a phenol formaldehyde resin production

Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, and Norhidaya A. Zakaria, and Coswald Stephen Sipaut @ Mohd Nasri, and Othman O. Sulaiman, and Rokiah Hashim, (2011) Chemical and thermal properties of lignins from oil palm biomass as a substitute for phenol in a phenol formaldehyde resin production. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86 (1). pp. 112-119. ISSN 0144-8617

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.04.018

Abstract

Lignins were extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch after kraft and soda pulping process. The aim of this study was to characterise the chemical and thermal properties of these lignins as well as determine their suitability for partial incorporation into phenol formaldehyde resin. The analytical methods used were CHN analyser, FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, TGA, DSC, GPC, 1H NMR and FESEM. The elemental analysis results showed that both lignins had similar contents of C, H and O. FTIR spectra also revealed that both lignins have similar functional groups. Nevertheless, both lignins showed different compositions in terms of molecular weight distribution (M n, M w and polydispersity), reactive site through Mannich reactivity analysis, surface morphology and T g value. The phenolic hydroxyl group content in kraft and soda lignins is 4.1076 mmol/g and 2.5830 mmol/g, respectively. The TGA thermogram showed both lignins had high thermal stability. Based on these analyses, kraft lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch showed tremendous potential as a partial substitute for phenol in phenol formaldehyde resin production.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Kraft lignin, Oil palm biomass, Oil palm empty fruit bunch, Phenol formaldehyde, Soda lignin, Kraft lignin, Oil palm biomass, Oil palm empty fruit bunch, Phenol formaldehyde, Soda lignin, Formaldehyde, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fruits, Functional groups, Kraft process, Molecular weight distribution, Phenols, Polydispersity, Synthetic resins, Thermodynamic properties, Ultraviolet spectroscopy, Lignin, Alkali Lignins, Biomass, Formaldehyde, Fourier Analysis, Fruits, Functional Groups, Infrared Spectra, Molecular Weight Distribution, Phenols, Polyphenolics, Synthetic Polymers, Thermal Properties, Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
Subjects:?? QD241-441 ??
Divisions:SCHOOL > School of Engineering and Information Technology
ID Code:5015
Deposited By:IR Admin
Deposited On:04 Oct 2012 17:42
Last Modified:16 Feb 2015 11:56

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