Chng , Lee Muei (2010) Optimization of carboxymethyl cellulose production from etherification cellulose. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose that widely used as additives in industries. CMC possesses advantageous properties especially their solubility in water, immiscibility in oil and organic solvent which made it acts as multifunction agent. Therefore, they function as stabilizer, thickener, binder and suspension agent in industries such as food and pharmaceutical. Hence, analysis on CMC production process has been studied by researchers in order to enhance the efficiency of the process to achieve specific properties of CMC needed. Most of the analysis were done using One-Factor-At-Time (OFAT) method, which is time consuming and potentially lead to misinterpretation of results due to lack of information on interaction effects likely to occur in chemical reaction. Therefore, statistical and mathematical technique by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is employed in this research to overcome the limitations especially interactions effects of CMC reaction conditions. Here, the CMC production was carried out by modifying cotton cellulose to CMC through Williamson etherification reaction. The reaction is efficient, inexpensive and easy to handle. Reaction process were studied with respect to Degree of substitution (OS) and reaction efficiency (RE) by varying the reaction conditions; volume ratio of ethanol to isoprophyl alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA). Production process carried out was approved through chemical structure identification using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), substituent distribution measurement using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, rheological behavior measurement using rotational viscometer. The result of analysis from RSM is comparable with OFAT in term of effect of single factor. Importance of interaction effects on responses were visualized through interaction plots from RSM. The interaction effect of reaction temperature with SMCA and NaOH concentrations are the most Significant. Reaction temperature higher than 50OC is required for optimum reaction to occur. RSM regression model on CMC production process suggested a few optimum solutions for maximum OS and RE. RSM model was validated through experiments carried out and the responses are near to the predicted value. The highest OS and RE that obtained with production conducted under investigated conditions are 0.993 and 63.59% respectively. The respective conditions are reaction temperature at 66.060C, reaction time at 172.20min, SMCA concentration at 13.90g, NaOH concentration at 19.35%w/v and solvent ratio at 0.87v/v.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TP Chemical technology|
|Divisions:||SCHOOL > School of Engineering and Information Technology|
|Deposited By:||IR Admin|
|Deposited On:||09 Jul 2013 11:22|
|Last Modified:||09 Jul 2013 11:22|
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