Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of fish and shellfish sold in Sabah

Foong, Yin Dien (2009) Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of fish and shellfish sold in Sabah. Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Unpublished)


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This study was carried out to assess the risk of heavy metals contamination of fish and shellfish sold in Sabah. Five fish species and two shellfish species which mackerel scad (Decapterus macrosoma), narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), giant sea perch (Lates calcarifet), pickhandle barracuda (Sphyraeno jello), talang queenfish (Scomberoides commersonianus), ark clam (Barbatia foliata) and hard clam (Polymesoda coaxans) were obtained from various districts of Sabah. Wet ashing was used as the digestion method. Heavy metals concentration was quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In order to estimate the risk of consuming fish and shellfish, Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) of elements of fish and shellfish were calculated. Cancer and non-cancer risk were assessed with cancer risk factor and Reference Dose from United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Arsenic had the highest level of concentration in all fish samples. Concentrations of cadmium, barium, copper, manganese and nickel decreased with the body length of fish while concentration of mercury increased with the increasing body length. Fish and shellfish from Tawau were found to have higher contamination of heavy metals as compared to other locations. Among all fishes and shellfish, only narrow-barred Spanish mackerel and talang queenfish did not exceed the maximum permitted level of Malaysian Food Regulations 1985 and foreign legislation while other fish and shellfish had arsenic level exceeded Malaysian Food Regulations 1985 and foreign legislation. The fish consumption rate obtained from the conducted survey was 1065.02 g/week and 36.14 g/week for shellfish. EWI of arsenic for mackerel scad and arsenic level for overall fish consumption were exceeded the Reference Dose of US EPA while other fish species were within the permitted level of the established standards. EWI of arsenic for overall fish consumption has exceeded guidelines of US EPA and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive. It is found that arsenic posed non-cancer risk for both fish and shellfish . Besides, it is found that 7 persons out of 1000 population having the risk of getting cancer by consuming fish while 1 person out of 1000 persons may develop cancer by consuming shellfish in Sabah. BaSically, fish and shellfish in Sabah are still safe for consumption. However, fish and shellfish that contain higher level of heavy metals, such as mackerel scad, ark clam and hard clam should be consume in moderation.

Item Type: Academic Exercise
Uncontrolled Keywords: heavy metal, fish, shellfish, mackerel scad, ark clam, hard clam, sold
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics > TX1-1110 Home economics > TX341-641 Nutrition. Foods and food supply
Divisions: SCHOOL > School of Food Science and Nutrition
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2013 09:23
Last Modified: 16 Oct 2017 14:52
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/6254

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