Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected commercial bread

Heng, Ruen Ning (2014) Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected commercial bread. Universiti Malaysia Sabah. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 10 selected commercial bread samples baked using either charcoal, gas, diesel or electricity as fuel from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah were evaluated in this study. The PAH compounds analysed included naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b ]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene. Soxhlet extraction and silica gel column clean-up were carried outprior to analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLO). The total concentration of the 13 analytes detected in the different bread samples varied from 223.26± 20.46 to 595.23± 95.71 ng/g. Light PAHs were predominant over heavy PAHs and their concentrations were in the ranges of 123.79 ± 27.61 - 454.70 ± 171.47 ng/g and 58.51 % 7.17 - 214.52 % 21.20 ng/g respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene and sum of PAH4 (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) concentrations were detected within the ranges of 7.09% 0.48 - 18.24± 9.71 ng/g and 15.42± 7.71 - 119.50% 33.49 ng/g respectively. Wholemeal bread products could be more PAHs contaminated compared to refined wheat bread products as shown by the pairs: diesel oven baked wholemeal (479.59± 33.30 ng/g) and sandwich bread (252.56± 11.79 ng/g); electric oven baked wholemeal bread (306.47% 32.54 ng/g) and plain bun (223.27 ± 11.39 ng/g). Bread baked using electric ovens (223.27 % 11.39 ng/g) are less contaminated with PAHs in comparison with bread baked using diesel (252.56± 11.79 ng/g),gas (range: 241.26± 30.86 - 550.83± 43.21 ng/g), or charcoal (501.12 ±20.92 ng/g) oven.

Item Type:Academic Exercise
Uncontrolled Keywords:polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bread baked, fuel
Subjects:T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP368-456 Food processing and manufacture
Divisions:FACULTY > Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition
ID Code:14671
Deposited By:IR Admin
Deposited On:18 Oct 2016 09:44
Last Modified:18 Oct 2016 09:44

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