Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Typha orientalis leaves

Anisuzzaman S.M., and Collin Glen Joseph Anthony Joseph, and Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud, and Duduku Krishnaiah, and Yee, Ho Sie (2015) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Typha orientalis leaves. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry , 6 (1). pp. 9-21. ISSN 2228-5547


Official URL:


Background In this study, activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Typha orientalis or commonly known as cattail leaves using physical and chemical activation phosphoric acid (H3PO4), as dehydrating agent. A two-stage process was used, i.e., semi-carbonization stage at 200 °C for 15 min as first stage followed by second stage activation, at 500 °C for 45 min. The precursor material with the impregnated agent was exposed straight away to semi-carbonization and activation temperature using a laboratory scale muffle furnace (Carbolite RHF 1500, England) under static condition in a self-generated atmosphere. Results The best condition in AC production was based on chemical activation which is AC2 with 2 M of H3PO4. AC2 has the highest removal efficiency, 97.4 % in 4 ppm concentration of Pb(II) and percentage yield of 62.73 % could be reached. The pH of the AC was controlled in the range 5–6. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, functional groups such as hydroxyl group, lactone group, and carboxyl group were obtained. These were clearly illustrated by scanning electron microscopy micrographs that porous structure was progressively developed with sponge-like structure. Conclusions The Pb(II) adsorption results were best fitted in the Langmuir isotherm for equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic fitted to the pseudo-second order model. The maximum Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of the best produced AC was found to be around 1,238 m2/g. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 7.95 mg/g.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Activated carbon, Typha orientalis leaves, Adsorption, Isotherm, Kinetics
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions:FACULTY > Faculty of Engineering
ID Code:15046
Deposited By:IR Admin
Deposited On:29 Nov 2016 11:02
Last Modified:29 Nov 2016 11:02

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Browse Repository
   UMS News
Quick Search

   Latest Repository

Link to other Malaysia University Institutional Repository

Malaysia University Institutional Repository