Larval development of Sandfish (Holothuria Scabra) under different feeding regime

Noor Adzlina Abidin, (2017) Larval development of Sandfish (Holothuria Scabra) under different feeding regime. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

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Abstract

Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) is one of the most widely cultured sea cucumber species in the Indo Pacific regions. Unfortunately, most of the sandfish farmer relies almost entirely on the wild seeds. Therefore, hatchery seed production is now underway to meet the needs of aquaculture. Understanding the feeding regime is very crucial because it influenced the growth performance and affects the yield in the hatchery. In this study, three experiments were conducted with three objectives, (1) to determine the developmental period of different stages of sandfish larvae, (2) to determine the effects of different diet and stocking density and (3) to determine the effects of different feeding regimes on the growth performance of sandfish larvae. Fertilized eggs used in this study were obtained via artificial and natural spawning. The larval developmental period was determined by observing the larvae daily. Six growth stages were recorded; gastrula (24 hours after fertilization), early auricularia (day 2), mid auricularia (day 4), late auricularia (day 6), doliolaria (day 21) and pentactula (day 26). To achieve the second objective, Nannochloropsis sp. and Chaetoceros calcitrans were tested to three different stocking densities (1, 1.5 and 2 larvae ml-1) on the 2 days after hatching (dAH) larvae in a factorial experiment. The experiment was carried out using 4.5 L plastic containers randomly arranged in a 2 tonnes HDPE tank, used as water bath with the temperature controlled at 29 to 30°C. The findings revealed the larval growth was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the diet, but not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the stocking density. A single species diet of Nannochloropsis sp. at 1.5 larvae ml-1 demonstrated the highest growth (109.69±8.21%). This study also demonstrated a highly significant interaction (p<0.05) between diet and stocking density on the larval growth. However, the survival was not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the diet and stocking density. There was a negative interaction (p>0.05) between diet and stocking density on the survival of the larvae. Although the highest survival was in the larvae fed on Nannochloropsis sp. at 2 larvae ml-1 (1.2±1.05%), but the metamorphosis was observed on day 12. On the other hand, C. calcitrans at 2 larvae ml-1 demonstrate the fastest (day 6) and highest metamorphic percentage compared to the other diets. Based on the results, five feeding regimes and two feed concentrations were tested in a factorial experiment. There was a significant interaction (p<0.05) between feeding regime and feed concentration on the growth of the larvae. N2C feeding regime at 4×104 cells ml-1 demonstrates the highest growth (38.09± 6.6%). The growth was significantly affected (p<0.05) by the feeding regime, but not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the feed concentration. Similarly, the survival was also significantly affected (p<0.05) by the feeding regime but not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the feed concentration. The highest survival was recorded in the larvae fed with a single feeding regime of Nannochloropsis sp. at 2×104 cells ml-1 (1.37±0.13%). However, there was a negative interaction (p>0.05) between these two factors on the survival of the larvae. Establishment of the larval rearing techniques of sandfish, particularly in the optimization of feeding regime is important as it influences the growth performance and yield of hatchery produced sandfish.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) , sea cucumber , agriculture , hatchery
Subjects: S Agriculture > SH Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
Divisions: SCHOOL > Borneo Marine Research Institute
Depositing User: NORAINI LABUK -
Date Deposited: 17 Dec 2020 08:46
Last Modified: 17 Dec 2020 08:46
URI: http://eprints.ums.edu.my/id/eprint/26502

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