Concentration of selected hydrocarbon compounds in tropical coastal waters of Sabah.

Kogila Vani Annammala, (2008) Concentration of selected hydrocarbon compounds in tropical coastal waters of Sabah. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.


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The main focus of this research is to provide a summary of the levels of contamination from oil and grease, 16 USEPA priority Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 32 types of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) including Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene and Total Xylenes (BTEX) compounds. Six sites were chosen and these sites includes three main small islands which known as the Tunku Abdul Rahman Park Islands namely Manukan, Mamutik and Sapi. Two other locations near shipping area which are Kota Kinabalu Port (also known as Jesselton Port) and two selected locations in Labuan Island. The level of oil and grease contamination are found to vary from 5.8 mg/L to 40.62 mg/L in December and 6.64 mg/L to 130.23 mg/L during February which is during low tide. The increase in contamination levels indicated the positive relation to tidal effect and boating activity near to the sampling location. While the Total PAHs in these small islands ranged from 0.55 µg/ml to 1.16 µg/ml, 0.46 µg/ml to 1.35 µg/ml in Labuan and 0.49 µg/ml to 0.53 µg/ml in Port Kota Kinabalu. Low levels of total PAHs were detected to be present in all study area during the observation period. Sediment samples did not contain high concentration of PAHs. It was noted that sandy nature of sediment at these islands may contribute to the low value of PAHs detected. The total VOCs in all sampled island showed almost similar level, ranged 3.72 to 8.33 µg/L, with non dominating compound to present. In Labuan the concentrations varied from 9.17 to 15.47 µg/L during December and 2.54 to 4.36 µg/L in February. Predominant compound detected was 2-Butanone also known as Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) which is mainly used in paints and other coatings. It is also released to air by car and truck exhausts. This component was detected to be highly present in Kota Kinabalu Port which is by the main road heading towards the main city Kota Kinabalu. Apart from MEK, chloroform was also detected to be present. Concentration detected ranged from 8.80 to 12.23 µg/L for MEK and 28.73 to 32.5 µg/L respectively for chloroform in Port KK. Main contribution of the contaminant in the study area is directly-linked to the activities in the research area which are boating and shipping activity.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: oil and grease, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), BTEX.
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Divisions: SCHOOL > School of Science and Technology
Date Deposited: 25 Jun 2013 04:24
Last Modified: 11 Oct 2017 02:56

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