Maraini Rajin, (2006) The effects of mixture components on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of the natural ingredient based lipstick formulation. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
The cosmetic industry in Malaysia is proven to be one of the important economy sources. Lipstick is one of the decorative cosmetic products that command a unique market. The quality of lipstick is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. A common problem in pre-formulation of the cosmetic product including lipstick is the optimisation of the mixture composition aimed to obtain a product with the required characteristics. In previous researches, statistical mixture design has been proven to be effective tool to investigate the relationship between variables in formulation work. Therefore, in this work, statistical mixture design has been applied in order to investigate the effects of mixture components on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of the formulated lipstick. Statistical mixture design has been applied for experimental setting for five components system, which are castor oil, beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax and solvent. Twenty-five natural ingredients based lipstick formulations have been prepared based on O-optimal mixture design criterion. The effects of the castor oil, beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax and solvent compositions on the melting point, hardness and viscosity of the lipstick have been studied. The results indicate that the physical properties of the lipstick can be manipulated by changing the composition of the castor oil, beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax and solvent in the formulation. Linear model has been suggested for all physical properties studied for lipstick formulation. The results shows that the melting point and viscosity of the lipstick are affected most by candelilla wax, carnauba wax and beeswax. Whereas, the hardness of the lipstick is affected most by castor oil, beeswax and solvent composition. furthermore, the consumer acceptance of the lipstick has been measured by using nine-point hedonic scale method, with 150 respondents. Quadratic model has been suggested for consumer response on lipstick's hardness, stickiness, consistency and overall acceptability. The compositions of candelilla wax and carnauba wax have the strong effect to consumer acceptance for all attributes studied including the overall acceptance. On the other hand, solvent composition has the strong effect only on hardness, stickiness and overall acceptability of the lipstick. Meanwhile, beeswax composition has the strong effect only on consistency acceptability. Finally, the numerical optimisation has been performed in order to obtain the formulation with desired characteristics at the minimum cost. The optimisation goal is based on the instrumental measurement and consumer evaluation data. The formulation, which has the acceptable physical characteristic and gained the maximum score in consumer evaluation at the minimum cost, is desirable. It is found that the optimum formulation suggested consist of 39.40% castor oil, 20.00% beeswax, 5.00% candelilla wax, 5.00% carnauba wax and 17.60% solvent, with the highest desirability of 0.84. Comparing to another two commercial formulation, the optimum formulation found to be harder and more viscous at room temperature. However the melting point of the optimum formulation is lower compared to commercial formulation.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||lipstick, cosmetic product, formulation, consumer acceptance|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TP Chemical technology|
|Divisions:||SCHOOL > School of Engineering and Information Technology|
|Deposited By:||IR Admin|
|Deposited On:||06 Aug 2014 09:07|
|Last Modified:||06 Aug 2014 09:07|
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