Readiness and Challenges of E-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Space Analysis in Peninsular Malaysia

Adi Jafar and Ramli Dollah and Prabhat Mittal and Asmady Idris and Jong, Eop Kim and Mohd Syariefudin Abdullah and Eko Prayitno Joko and Dayangku Norasyikin Awang Tejuddin and Nordin Sakke and Noor Syakirah Zakaria and Mohammad Tahir Mapa and Chong Vun Hung (2023) Readiness and Challenges of E-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Space Analysis in Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20. pp. 1-15.

[img] Text

Download (44kB)
[img] Text
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (2MB) | Request a copy


During the COVID-19 era, most countries, including Malaysia, have shifted from face-to-face teaching systems to online teaching programs. The aim of this study is to identify the main challenges that higher education students face during e-learning based on their residential location throughout Peninsular Malaysia. This study further examines the readiness of higher education students to apply e-learning. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey approach is used to fulfil the outlined objectives. Accordingly, 761 public (95.3%) and private (4.7%) higher education students residing in Peninsular Malaysia are sampled in this study. The survey was administered online for 37 days, from 21 October 21 to 6 December 2021, using either WhatsApp or Facebook. The raw data is inferentially (Principal Component Analysis, K-Means Clustering, Kruskal Wallis, and spatial analysis) and descriptively (mean, standard deviation & percentage) analyzed. It has been revealed that six clusters of students in Peninsular Malaysia face various challenges while following the e-learning program. Most states in Peninsular Malaysia are dominated by students in Cluster D (Terengganu, Perlis, Penang, Selangor, WP Kuala Lumpur, and WP Putrajaya) and Cluster B categories (Melaka, Johor, Kelantan, and Kedah). Students in the Cluster D category tend to suffer from physical health disorders and social isolation, while students in the Cluster B category face problems with decreased focus in learning, mental health disorders, and social isolation. The outcomes further indicate that the more challenges students face during e-learning programs, the lower their willingness to continue with the program. The results of this study are significant in addressing the challenges of e-learning, which will help stakeholders address and strengthen student abilities.

Item Type: Article
Keyword: Online learning, Online education system, University students, Geography Information Systems, GIS, Cluster analysis
Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education > LB5-3640 Theory and practice of education > LB2300-2430 Higher education
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA1-1270 Public aspects of medicine > RA421-790.95 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive medicine > RA643-645 Disease (Communicable and noninfectious) and public health
Department: FACULTY > Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2023 15:26
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2023 15:26

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item