Characterization of the physical properties of palm kernel cake

Saw, Horng Yuan and Jidon @ Adrian Janaun and Kumaresan, Sivakumar and Chu, Christopher (2012) Characterization of the physical properties of palm kernel cake. International Journal of Food Properties, 15 (3). pp. 536-548. ISSN 1094-2912


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A systematic sieving method (1 kg sample; 50 Hz; 0 inclination; 20 min) was used to obtain particle size distribution of palm kernel cake containing seven different particle sizes (4.83, 2.68, 1.50, 0.80, 0.51, 0.32, and 0.11 mm). Regardless of particle size, palm kernel cake was found to be of different shapes qualitatively with optical microscopy and quantitatively (variation in mean length, mean volume, and volume-surface mean diameters), non-porous (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area <1 m 2/g), and to contain an uneven rough surface, as shown in scanning electron microscopy. Palm kernel cake of 0.32 mm and less were aggregates with uneven rough surface, and those of 0.51 mm and more were agglomerates with interstices formed from particle agglomeration. These characteristics affected the bulk density of palm kernel cake that decreased with decreasing particle sizes due to lower packing density and higher void. The physical properties affected the hydration properties. This information is useful for the solid-state fermentation of palm kernel cake.

Item Type: Article
Keyword: Bulk density, Palm kernel cake, Particle size distribution, Porosity, Specific surface area, Brunauer emmett tellers, Bulk density, Different shapes, Hydration properties, Mean diameter, Packing density, Palm kernel cake, Particle agglomerations, Rough surfaces, Solid-state fermentation, Optical microscopy, Particle size, Particle size analysis, Porosity, Scanning electron microscopy, Specific surface area; Surface measurement, Agglomeration
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
S Agriculture > SB Plant culture > SB1-1110 Plant culture > SB183-317 Field crops Including cereals, forage crops, grasses, legumes, root crops, sugar plants, textile plants, alkaloidal plants, medicinal plants
Department: SCHOOL > School of Engineering and Information Technology
Depositing User: ADMIN ADMIN
Date Deposited: 07 Dec 2012 17:50
Last Modified: 11 Oct 2017 09:31

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